Mental disorders

Mental disorders, or mental disorders, are illnesses that affect the emotions, thought patterns, and behavior of those affected. As with physical illnesses, there is a cure for mental illnesses.

Many factors can trigger mental disorders, from certain illnesses to stress from traumatic events, such as the death of a loved one, losing a job, or prolonged isolation.

Causes of Mental Disorders

It is not known exactly what causes mental disorders. However, this condition is known to be associated with biological and psychological factors as detailed below:

Biological factors or also called organic mental disorders

• Dysfunction of the nerve cells in the brain
• Infections, eg by Streptococcus bacteria
• Congenital abnormalities or brain injuries
• Brain damage from impact or accident
• Lack of oxygen in the baby’s brain during labor
• Parents or family history of mental disorders
• Long-term substance abuse such as heroin and cocaine
• Lack of nutrition

Psychological factors

• Traumatic events such as violence and sexual harassment
• Loss of parents or wastage in childhood
• Less able to get along with other people
• Divorce or death of a spouse
• Feelings of inferiority, inadequacy, anger, or loneliness

Symptoms of a mental disorder

Symptoms and signs of mental disorders depend on the type of mental disorder experienced. Patients may experience disturbances in emotions, thought patterns, and behavior.

Some examples of symptoms and characteristics of mental disorders are:

• Delusions or delusions, which are believing something that is not real or not based on facts
• Hallucinations, which is the sensation when someone sees, hears or feels something that is not real
• Mood swings during certain periods
• Feelings of sadness that last for weeks or even months
• Excessive and persistent feelings of anxiety or anxiety, interfering with daily activities
• eating disorders, e.g. B. Fear of gaining weight, being prone to vomiting food, or eating large amounts of food
• Changes in sleep patterns, such as B. easy falling asleep and falling asleep, difficulty falling asleep, as well as breathing problems and restless legs during sleep
• Nicotine or alcohol addiction and drug abuse
• Excessive anger up to tantrums and acts of violence
• Unnatural behavior, such as screaming incoherently, talking and laughing alone, and leaving the house naked

In addition to psychological symptoms, people with mental disorders can also experience physical symptoms such as headaches, back pain, and heartburn.

Diagnosis of mental disorders

To determine the type of mental disorder the patient is suffering from, the psychiatrist conducts a psychiatric medical examination by interviewing the patient or his family. Questions to ask include:

• Symptoms experienced, including when symptoms started and how they affected daily activities
• History of mental illness in patients and their families
• Events the patient has experienced in the past that triggered the trauma
• Medications and dietary supplements that have been or are being taken

To rule out other diseases, the doctor performs a physical examination and accompanying examinations. One of the supportive tests is a blood test. Blood tests can help doctors find out if a patient’s symptoms are caused by a thyroid disorder, alcoholism, or drugs.

Examples of mental disorders

After a series of examinations, the doctor can determine the nature of the patient’s mental disorder. Of the many types of mental disorders, some of the most common are:

1. Depression

Depression is a mood disorder that causes sufferers to feel constantly sad. Unlike ordinary sadness, which lasts a few days, feelings of sadness associated with depression can last for weeks or months.

2. Schizophrenia

Schizophrenia is a mental disorder that causes complaints of hallucinations, delusions, and confusion in thinking and behavior. Schizophrenia renders the sufferer unable to distinguish between reality and their mind.

3. Anxiety Disorders

Anxiety disorders are mental disorders that cause sufferers to feel excessively and constantly anxious or anxious when performing everyday activities. People with anxiety disorders can experience panic attacks that are long-lasting and difficult to control.

4. Bipolar Disorder

Bipolar disorder is a type of mental disorder characterized by mood swings. People with bipolar disorder can sometimes feel very sad and hopeless, then very happy again.

5. Sleep disorders

Sleep disorders are changes in sleep patterns that affect the sufferer’s health and quality of life. Some examples of sleep disorders include difficulty falling asleep (insomnia), nightmares (parasomnia), or falling asleep very easily (narcolepsy).

Treatment of mental disorders

Treatment for mental disorders depends on the type of disorder being experienced and its severity. In addition to cognitive behavioral therapy and medication, the doctor will also advise the patient to lead a healthy lifestyle.

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

Cognitive behavioral therapy is a type of psychotherapy that aims to change the patient’s thinking and response from negative to positive. This therapy is the main choice for treating mental disorders such as anxiety disorders, bipolar disorders, sleep disorders, depression, and schizophrenia.

In many cases, doctors combine cognitive-behavioral therapy and medication to make treatment more effective.


To relieve the patient’s symptoms and increase the effectiveness of psychotherapy, the doctor may prescribe the following drugs:

• Antidepressants, eg fluoxetine
• Antipsychotics such as aripiprazole
• Anxiety medicines, eg alprazolam
• Mood stabilizers such as lithium

Lifestyle Changes

A healthy lifestyle can improve sleep quality for people with mental disorders who also suffer from sleep disorders, especially when combined with the above treatment methods. Some steps that can be taken are:

• Reduction of sugar intake in food
• Eat more fruits and vegetables
• Limiting the consumption of caffeinated beverages
• Quit smoking and consuming alcoholic beverages
• Cope well with stress
• Do sports regularly
• Eat a lower-carb snack before bed
• Go to bed at the same time and get up at the same time every day

If the mental disorder is severe enough, the patient must be treated in a psychiatric hospital. Likewise, if the patient cannot take care of themselves or a mental disorder causes the patient to take actions that endanger themselves and others.